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中文腦 VS. 英文腦,差別在這!介係詞 to / by / in 你都用對了嗎?

2019-11-19 19:29:33
Managertoday
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靠死背、有規則可循的介系詞,多數人不會感到困擾,但要憑感覺才能選對的介系詞, 99%的人要碰運氣。 ###1. This brand is well known ___ all Taiwanese.

靠死背、有規則可循的介系詞,多數人不會感到困擾,但要憑感覺才能選對的介系詞, 99%的人要碰運氣。

1. This brand is well known ___ all Taiwanese. 台灣人都很熟悉這個品牌。

這句話改成被動說法是「這個品牌被台灣人所熟悉」, 「 被」是by,所以 「中文腦」會猜是:This brand is well known by all Taiwanese.

正解:This brand is well known to all Taiwanese.

動詞 know 往往搭配介系詞 to,因為「知道」某個對象,有一個針對性,所 以我們很少說某對象「被」我知道,而是採主動說法「我知道某對象」。

無獨有偶,married、engaged、related後面也是因為針對某對象,介系詞 用to。

2. I really put my foot ___ it. 我真是不得體。

一想到「站(放腳)在某處」,介系詞自然會想用on,所以會以為答案是: I really put my foot on it.

正解:I really put my foot in it.

因為說話或舉止「涉入」某事且不得體,而令人傷心或生氣,介系詞應該用 in。

3. Don't complain to me about the noise; you're barking ___ the wrong tree. 對我抱怨噪音,你找錯對象了。

bark作「吠叫」解時,後面是接at,國中老師有教過,當然不疑有他: Don't complain to me about the noise; you're barking at the wrong tree.

正解:Don't complain to me about the noise; you're barking up the wrong tree.

狗應該是向上對樹吠叫,所以用up,畫面才對。bark up the wrong tree是 一句慣用語,由來是獵犬向沒有獵物的樹亂吠,後來引申為「找錯目標、錯 怪了人」或「把精力花在不該花的地方。

4. I can't reach the pens. Would you throw one ___ me? 我無法拿到筆,可以丟一支給我嗎?

網路上查字典得知,throw作「投、擲」解時,後面可以接at或to,所以就 隨便猜一個:I can't reach the pens.. Would you throw one at me?

正解:I can't reach the pens. Would you throw one to me?

throw後面若接at,通常是在含有怒氣或敵意的情境下,有一種要「丟到」 人的感覺,所以用to更恰當。

5. Helen usually goes to work ___ her car. 海倫通常開車上班。

考慮到「用」某個交通工具,「中文腦」自動聯結到with,答案就變成: Helen usually goes to work with her car.

正解:Helen usually goes to work by car.

with除了是「用(工具)」外,另有「與…一起」的意思,所以本句若填 with,會變成是人和車子結伴而行的感覺。by也解作「靠、用、透過」,卻 沒有上述問題,亦不須多此一舉加所有格。

(本文出自「世界公民文化中心」,熟到老外都覺得你英文好,加入量身訂做的1on1 program)

延伸閱讀 / 英文email要這樣寫外國人才看得懂!避開這3種常見錯誤

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